Why Vacuums Are So Crucial to the Sputtering Method

Posted by: admin  :  Category: Electronics

Ion beam assisted deposition is a common method used in thin film deposition. The creation of a vacuum is vital to deposition by sputtering; one cannot sputter without a vacuum. A vacuum permits a number of required variables, including the reduction of gas and gas densities, which permits atoms and molecules to travel less impeded. With a less “crowded” atmosphere within the vacuum chamber, the atoms and molecules introduced into the system interact in a more controlled fashion.

Ion beam etching provides a method to clean the surface upon which the operator wishes to deposit a film. Elements such as oxygen can rust steel, so coating a product using a deposition system will help prevent it from rusting. The finished result creates a film so thin that it is only atoms thick, yet so strong, it can be compared to the hardness of a diamond. Contaminates present during the ion beam etching and sputtering procedure will lessen the desired hardness and strength of the deposited material.

Temperature is another variable that must be controlled and managed for use by a vacuum deposition system. High heat setting is necessary for the appropriate chain reactions among atoms and molecules to take place. Atoms in a plasma state are condensed in a defined area with the plasma, and thus generate heat. Together with the space within the vacuum system chamber, these chain reactions create much heat.

Temperature levels in this plasma can reach the temperature of our sun. Such heat can compromise your application, process and materials used. Temperature control is vital to successful thin film disposition within a vacuum system.

Guest post is provided by Denton Vacuum, LLC, offering sputtering systems of superior quality. Visit www.dentonvacuum.com for more information.

The Role of Milk in the Transformation of Ancient Europe

Posted by: admin  :  Category: Technology

By Phin Upham

Why did the hunter-gatherer cultures in Europe die out after the Ice Age, to be replaced by farmers and herders? A recent article in Nature posits an intriguing answer: a genetic mutation that left Europeans and their descendants able to drink milk without getting sick.

Until about 7,500 years ago, only children had the ability to ingest lactose, the sugar found in milk and other dairy products. But a genetic mutation that may have started in Hungary spread throughout Europe, allowing European farmers and herders and their future generations to break down lactose and safely eat and drink dairy products.

This is ultimately important because people with this genetic mutation produce 19 percent more fertile offspring than lactose-intolerant people. Not only were lactose-tolerant farmers and herders more fertile, but research suggests that being able to digest dairy products allowed them to store more foods over winter and avoid the risks of famine.

Read more:http://www.nature.com


Phin Upham About the Author: Phin Uphamis an investor at a family office/ hedgefund, where he focuses on special situation illiquid investing. Before this position, Phin Upham was working at Morgan Stanley in the Media & Technology group. You may contact Phin on his Phin Upham website or Twitter page.

Leave it to the Professionals

Posted by: admin  :  Category: Computer

The computer industry has taken a big leap forward within the last century in terms of the things it can do, what started outas only being able to handle simple calculationsevolved into doing pretty much anything, from having food delivered at your doorstep to finding out what time your favouritetelenovella is going to air. Pretty much anything now can be found online and is accessible anywhere with a computer or a mobile device. This has made various forms of communication easily accessible and thus saw a significant increase of productivity in a lot of industries, particularly in Los Angeles.

Many, if not all businesses in Los Angeles, whether micro or macro in scale, utilize computers in their daily operations. Due to today’s requirements, the system and network infrastructure tends to be more complex, having to serve several functions at the same time, and setting it all up is never easy to do on your own,you wonder if all the trouble, headache, and stress is worth the couple hundred you save not hiring professionals. Well, if you decide to enlist professional help, there are many independent IT services Los Angeles to choose from. A quick google search of “computer services los angelesca” should give you everything you need to inquire and set an appointment.

In the end, it’s always better to leave these kinds of things to the professionals. You have a peace of mind knowing that the hardware was done correctly and your data is safe from any outside threats.

Article submitted by CalnetTechnology  Group. Calnet Technology Group provides IT consultant Los Angeles and its surrounding areas for fast and reliable IT support to keep your company going.