Understanding the Volatile Nature of Thin Film Evaporation

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Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC

Thin film evaporation consists of a volatile exchange of heat, pressure, and contact.

The process of thin film evaporation revolves around the thermal separation of products or materials within a vacuum chamber. Through a mechanically generated process, a highly thin and turbulent liquid film is placed on the material resulting in a durable coating.

Diving In

The sputter coater, or thin film evaporator, takes the product and utilizes its rotor to uniformly spread the material out on the distribution ring. Upon first contact with the first rotor blades, the material is immediately formed into a film that can range anywhere from 0.5 mm to 3.5 mm (depending on the requested specifications). Now, in front of each rotor blade, the fluid will create a bow wave that further assisted the deposition process.

Note that the fluid within the gap between the heat transfer surface an the tip of the rotor blade is extremely turbulent which in turn leads to an intense heat and mass transfer rate. This is vital for the process as it ensures that there is enough pressure to convert the material into a thin film. Additionally, the turbulence also produces a high volume of heat transfer coefficients even with the presence of viscous products. The intense process and exchange prevents the process from over heating, which is especially important in diamond like carbon coatings, as well as fouling on the heat transfer surface. The elimination of these detrimental effects ensures the coating comes out even and smooth.

The Three Fundamental Steps of PVD

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Article written by Soft informer

Physical vapor deposition is a fairly simple process that involves various substance changes.

The process of physical vapor deposition is essentially created by a group of surface coating technologies that are used for a variety of purposes that include: tool coating, aesthetic, and equipment coating. Additionally, this process involves vaporization coating which utilizes atoms in a type of material transfer from solid to vapor, and then back to the solid phase. Eventually, the resulting material ends up with a film being created on top of the surface.

When it comes to reactive deposition, the material that’s being deposited reacts with an environment that’s primarily gaseous and also filled with co-deposited materials to form a compound material film – i.e. carbide, oxide, etc.

PVD coating can be done in several ways, but there are three basic categories that include: ion plating, evaporation, and sputtering. These three processes all use the same fundamental steps to create the coating. Now, they may use the same fundamental steps, but they generate and deposit material differently, requiring unique equipment pieces catered to each process.

Fundamental Steps

The first fundamental step involves a vapor phase from the coating material through sputtering, evaporation, chemical vapors, etc. The second step involves the transfer of vapor from source to substrate. Finally, the last state involves the film growth and deposition on the substrate.

One example of a PVD process is the creation of medical device coatings. Certain equipment pieces like catheters require there to be a coating to minimize the risk of blood clots, infection, and rejection. These coatings are produced over the catheters and kept in a sterile condition, as to reduce the chances of any bacteria entering the body on use.

Denton Vacuum, LLC is your home for PVD thermal evaporation equipment. Visit their inventory online today.

How Thin-Film Deposition Works and What It’s Used For

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Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC

Summary: Sputter deposition is an advanced form of manufacturing.

Production techniques that are used to build a car engine or transmission, such as metalizing a screw, use an advanced form of manufacturing known as sputter deposition. This method utilizes chemical compounds, processed into gaseous form, to alter the physical properties of the original object.

On a microscopic scale, the technique of sputtering is similar to repainting a chair or a wall with a can of spray paint. The object, known as a “substrate,” is positioned upon a base that is smoothly rotated, while a nozzle blasts the substrate with the chemical compound. The rotation gives the substrate an even finish across the entire surface.

PVD coating equipment applies films that make use of solutions including silicon nitride. This type of mixture is used to coat parts for airplanes, car engines and surgical equipment. The key to this technique is in the application of thin layers of material, which usually don’t surpass more than a few microns in thickness, so as to keep the substrate unaltered.

Vacuum coating systems are widely-used to produce a wafer-thin layer of materials that prevent glare or scratches. Any pair of glasses ordered with “anti-glare” coatings will have gone through this process. The chemicals only bond under precise temperatures, so materials must be superheated and then super cooled at precise intervals.

Sputtering and its ilk are now prevalent, but some of the methods involved in this process are also the same used in sterilization and pasteurization. Vacuums also supply a contained space where chemical substances can adhere to a substrate.

Bio: Denton Vacuum, LLC manufactures PVD coating equipment and sputter deposition machinery.

How to Use Space to Launch a Product

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Some of the most exciting product launches are also the most ambitious. Take, for example, Red Bull. Though they did not launch a new product, Felix Baumgartner’s space jump certainly put the energy drink on people’s radars. While you might not have the budget to plan an operation quite so large, anyone can launch a product into space. It’s a popular and fun project that has the potential to go viral. If you want a small-budget project with the potential for big results, read on for tips on how to make it work.


You need to gather your materials, beginning with weather balloons sized to carry your payload. You also need a gas to fill the balloon with so you can get the right distance and height. For a good launch, you will need more than just your product on the payload. Start with a camera so you can capture shots from the stratosphere. Next, you’ll need a GPS unit to track the distance your product travels and for easy recovery. You need to make sure you have an “arm” attached to the payload that can support all this weight, and you should also include the product itself. A simple box works to wrap everything up for delivery, but clear-plastic boxes are ideal for visibility. Make sure you scout a location to launch from. A flat area works best, so plateaus and parking lots are all viable options.

Launch Day

On the day of your launch, you need to make sure you have someone trained in handling the gases you will use to inflate the balloon. Make sure that you launch on a clear day with blue skies and low winds, as the balloon can be severely knocked off course with even the slightest wind speeds. Gather your company cohorts and share in the celebration. Just be prepared to take the trip you need to recover the payload.


So you finished the launch, what’s next? Package all of the images and video you shot into one commercial reel. Take pictures of the finished launch, and carefully document the process from launch to recovery. Release all of your data in a detailed blog post, and proudly proclaim that your product has been to space and back.

Final Thoughts

It’s hard to conceive that science experiments can be so effective, but consider the “awe” factor. Space is popular now, especially with shows like Cosmos leading the scientific charge into pop culture. You can cash in on this trend with a well-coordinated product launch into space.
Sky-Probe.com sells weather balloon launch delivery kits, complete with GPS and payload. Find out how you can launch your product into space when you visit Sky-Probe online.

Why Vacuums Are So Crucial to the Sputtering Method

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Ion beam assisted deposition is a common method used in thin film deposition. The creation of a vacuum is vital to deposition by sputtering; one cannot sputter without a vacuum. A vacuum permits a number of required variables, including the reduction of gas and gas densities, which permits atoms and molecules to travel less impeded. With a less “crowded” atmosphere within the vacuum chamber, the atoms and molecules introduced into the system interact in a more controlled fashion.

Ion beam etching provides a method to clean the surface upon which the operator wishes to deposit a film. Elements such as oxygen can rust steel, so coating a product using a deposition system will help prevent it from rusting. The finished result creates a film so thin that it is only atoms thick, yet so strong, it can be compared to the hardness of a diamond. Contaminates present during the ion beam etching and sputtering procedure will lessen the desired hardness and strength of the deposited material.

Temperature is another variable that must be controlled and managed for use by a vacuum deposition system. High heat setting is necessary for the appropriate chain reactions among atoms and molecules to take place. Atoms in a plasma state are condensed in a defined area with the plasma, and thus generate heat. Together with the space within the vacuum system chamber, these chain reactions create much heat.

Temperature levels in this plasma can reach the temperature of our sun. Such heat can compromise your application, process and materials used. Temperature control is vital to successful thin film disposition within a vacuum system.

Guest post is provided by Denton Vacuum, LLC, offering sputtering systems of superior quality. Visit www.dentonvacuum.com for more information.

Thin-Film Deposition 101

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Guest post is provided by Denton Vacuum, LLC.  This manufacturer of ultra-thin metallic and dielectric coatings, performs many scientific processes such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.   Browse their website for more information.

Thin-film deposition is a technique that’s used to deposit a thin film of material onto a substrate.  A substrate is a layer that lies under something on which a process occurs.  The substrate typically undergoes a reaction or decomposition.  These thin-film substrates are used in a variety of uses and industries.  They’re used in optics such as glasses, electronics including televisions, and coatings.  Coatings help to prevent wear and tear on a variety of objects.

Thin films are created through various processes which are usually broken down into two categories: chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition.  During an evaporative process, a source material is heated to the point that it evaporates onto a substrate.

UHV Sputter Deposition is a method of substrate coating.  This process involves energetic ion bombardment and essentially removes a material from a solid target in order to coat a substrate.  During this process, as with any thin film deposition, it’s very important to prevent contamination.  In order to do this, the temperature of the vacuum has to be right and the seals and valves must work to keep out any foreign particles.

Ion Beam Etching is another important process that’s used in the creation of thin-film substrates.  Ion beams are used in various types of technological equipment and the manufacturing of many electronics.   Ion beam etching is used for high density applications in devices with require a long life span and need to perform as precisely as possible.

Thin-film deposition, no matter what process is used, aids in the manufacturing of a myriad of products and industries.

The Importance of the Vacuum in Sputtering Methods

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Guest post is provided by Denton Vacuum, LLC. Denton Vacuum manufactures machines that employ precision ion beam deposition methods for diamond-like film quality. Visit www.dentonvacuum.com for more information.

Ion beam sputter deposition is one of the most intriguing kinds of technology to date. The vacuum is so essential to these various deposition methods, the process couldn’t happen without it. The main job of the vacuum is to control variables in these processes. Undesired particles are shut out, resulting in a low contamination environment for the ion beams, gasses and metals to react. If contaminating particles existed inside the process, these electrons would with other particles, compromising the coating method.

Ion beam deposition is so sensitive, that sealed vacuums are necessary to prevent any other reaction with other gas particles. For example, oxygen is an ample gas in our atmosphere, and it is also highly reactive. This can be displayed by its ability to rust metals, hence the name “oxidation”. Consequentially, the final product of deposition systems is to help prevent items from rusting. Sometimes, having contamination within the process can even be dangerous.

Temperature is also something that needs to be carefully controlled by a vacuum evaporation system. Temperatures are so high in these reactions that they reach plasma levels, the same state of matter that exists in our sun. Chemical reactions happen most easily in heated environments, because atoms have more space and freedom to move around. When a substance is cold, atoms are tightly packed together, so chemical changes are difficult. Examples of this can simply be observed in how ingredients interact in the oven when you’re cooking or baking. The amount of pressure or heat applied influences the thickness and cohesiveness of the layers.

Security Alert! Spy Cameras For Home

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It seems that businesses owners aren’t the only ones installing state-of-the-art security systems into their establishments. Even homeowners nowadays recognize the importance of increased security. The spy camera is no longer just limited to the James Bond types. It has a new incarnation in the form of security cameras designed for the home.

Residential security systems are becoming more of a necessity than a luxury, especially with the increasing rate of crime. Homes are becoming more susceptible to theft and robbery due to the more sophisticated methods employed by enterprising individuals. In order to effectively prevent and avoid things like that from occurring in your home, then a security investment may be a wise investment.

Security or spy cameras for home are becoming more popular because they now come in simple, easy-to-use models that a normal, ordinary homeowner will have no trouble installing. They come in different sizes and shapes, wired or wireless versions, depending on the needs of your home. Taking a page from its cousin, the spy cameras, these security cameras are an excellent way to monitor the activities within the rooms of your home and even outside your home, including the immediate vicinity.

The home is a place for family. It is a sanctuary for most people and as such; it should be comfortable and most importantly, safe. Therefore, prevent occurrences of theft, robbery and other crimes from happening in your home. Most criminals are wary of security cameras. Aside from being a practical buy, security cameras are also powerful deterrents against crime.

Why Buy Spy Cameras?

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When you think of spy camera you may not understand just how many benefits that it can offer you.  One of the biggest benefits of using this product is it gives you a source of protection against unwanted theft and actions in your home or office. For many people the thought of leaving their children home alone with a new babysitter can be scary and at times there is warrant for real concern. Keep an eye on your nanny’s conduct with your children while you are away from home.

Spy cameras are almost a must have for a business that deals with money or valuable products that may tempt an employee or other individual who may want to steal when you aren’t looking. This will give you the assurance that your company will always be protected even when you aren’t physically there. It’s imperative to being a successful business that you take the needed steps to protect your home and office.

Spy cameras for home come in various options so whether you are looking for something high tech or just a simple camera which will allow you to record guests or your children’s behavior it will be easy to choose the perfect option. It’s very easy to hide the camera without anyone ever suspecting anything especially since you can purchase it as items such as clothing, ashtrays, books, caps and many other simple items. The prices range depending on how many items you need or the specific items that you want but either way you will definitely be happy with the final product and the results that it will give you,

What About Hidden Cameras?

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If you have an interest in preparing your house for something that the future might hold – like for instance an apocalypse, then you may want to consider something like hidden cameras, which would allow you to watch all of the angles of your house and the surrounding areas, while still staying the comfort of your home, in order to make yourself and your loved ones as secure as possible.  One of the biggest threats in an apocalypse like scenario would be other people trying to steal your supplies – food, clean water, soap, toilet paper, and other necessities are going to become increasingly hard to find, and if you have a good stock pile, then you could potentially become a target for those that are less prepared for the coming events that you are.

Installing hidden cameras wireless will allow you to see a threat coming from a reasonable distance away, and allow you plenty of time to react to the coming problem – this will also potentially deter people from attempting to attack you, because you will always be able to see an attack, no matter what angle it comes from.

Spy cameras for home sites will allow you the possibility of staying in one place for a longer amount of time, and when you can stay in a place longer, it will allow you to become stronger and more capable of defense and providing for yourself – like the ability to grow food and raise animals.